Oolong Tea(乌龙茶)最著名的是福建的安溪(Anxi)鐵觀音(Tiě Guān Yīn or Ti Kuan Yin)和武夷山(WuYi Mountains)的武夷岩茶(Wǔyí cliff tea)和大红袍(Big Red Robe)
Oolong Tea(simplified Chinese: 乌龙茶; traditional Chinese: 烏龍茶; pinyin: wūlóng) is a traditional Chinese tea (Camellia sinensis) somewhere between green and black in oxidation. It ranges from 10% to 70% oxidation. It is among the most popular types of teas served in typical Chinese restaurants.
In Chinese tea culture, semi-oxidised oolong teas are collectively grouped as qīngchá (Chinese: 清茶; literally "clear tea"). Oolong has a taste more akin to green tea than to black tea: it lacks the rosy, sweet aroma of black tea but it likewise does not have the stridently grassy vegetal notes that typify green tea. It is commonly brewed to be strong, with the bitterness leaving a sweet aftertaste. Several subvarieties of oolong, including those produced in the Wuyi Mountains of northern Fujian and in the central mountains of Taiwan, are among the most famous Chinese teas.
Oolong tea leaves are processed in two different ways. Some teas are rolled into long curly leaves, while some are pressed into a ball-like form similar to gunpowder tea. The former method of processing is the older of the two.
The name oolong tea comes into the English language from the Chinese name (Chinese: 烏龍茶), which is pronounced as O·-liông tê in the Min Nan spoken variant. The Chinese name means "black dragon tea".
There are three widely accepted explanations on how the Chinese name came about. According to the "tribute tea" theory, oolong tea was a direct descendant of Dragon-Phoenix Tea Cake tribute tea. Oolong tea replaced it when loose tea came into fashion. Since it was dark, long and curly, it was called the Black Dragon tea.
According to the "Wuyi" theory, oolong tea first existed in Wuyi Mountain. This is evidenced by Qing dynasty poems such as Wuyi Tea Song (Wuyi Chage) and Tea Tale (Chashuo). It was said that oolong tea was named after the part of Wuyi mountain where it was originally produced.
According to the "Anxi" theory, oolong tea had its origin in the Anxi oolong tea plant. A man named Sulong, Wulong or Wuliang discovered it.
Another tale tells of a man named Wu Liang (later corrupted to Wu Long, or Oolong) who discovered oolong tea by accident when he was distracted by a deer after a hard day’s tea-picking, and by the time he remembered about the tea it had already started to oxidize.
Classification and grade
Tea connoisseurs classify the tea by its aroma (often floral or fruity), taste and aftertaste (often melony). Oolongs comes in either roasted (炭焙) or light (密香 or 清香). While most oolongs can be consumed immediately postproduction, like pu-erh tea, many oolong can benefit from long aging with regular light roasting with a low charcoal fire (烘培, pinyin:hōngpeì, literally: bake cultivation or 焙火, pinyin:peìhǔo, dry roasting by fire). Before roasting, Oolong tea leaves are rolled and bruised to break open cell walls and stimulate enzymatic activity. The process of roasting removes unwanted odours from the tea and reduces any sour or astringent tastes; in addition, the process is believed to make the oolong tea more gentle on the stomach.
Varieties of Oolong Tea
Wǔyí cliff tea (武夷岩茶 Wǔyí yán chá) from Fújiàn province
The most famous and expensive Oolong teas are made here but the production is still usually accredited as organic. A lot of Shuǐ Xiān is grown elsewhere in Fujian. Some of the better known cliff teas are:
Dà Hóng Páo (大红袍)
Big Red Robe in Chinese, a highly prized tea and a Si Da Ming Cong (四大名樅, literally: The Four Great Bushes). This tea is also one of the two Oolongs that make it to the list of Chinese famous teas.
Shuǐ Jīn Guī (水金亀)
Golden Water Turtle in Chinese, a Si Da Ming Cong.
Tiě Luó Hàn (鉄羅漢)
Iron Arhat in Chinese, a Si Da Ming Cong tea
Bái Jī Guān (白鸡冠)
White Cockscomb in Chinese, a Si Da Ming Cong tea. A light tea with light, yellowish leaves.
Ròu Guì (肉桂)
Cinnamon in Chinese, a dark tea with a spicy aroma.
Shuǐ Xiān (水仙)
Water Sprite in Chinese, a very dark tea, often grown elsewhere
Tiě Guān Yīn or Ti Kuan Yin (鐵觀音)
Iron Guanyin in Chinese, this is a tea from Anxi in South Fujian. Anxi County (Chinese: 安溪县; Pinyin: Ānxī Xiàn; POJ: An-khoe) is a county in the municipal region of Quanzhou, Fujian Province. It lies adjacent to and directly north of Xiamen.
Anxi is well-known for its sort of Oolong tea, Tieguanyin (铁观音, "Iron Boddhisatva of Mercy").
It is very famous, in fact a ‘Chinese famous tea’ and very popular.
Dān Cōng (单丛)
A family of stripe-style oolong teas from Guangdong Province. The doppelganger of teas, Dancong teas are noted for their ability to naturally imitate the flavors and fragrances of various flowers and fruits, such as orange blossom, orchid, grapefruit, almond, ginger flower, etc.
The name dan cong is often misinterpreted as meaning the tea is all picked from a single bush, grove, or clone. This is not correct. Dan cong is a botanical term that refers to the morphology of the tea plant. Most tea bushes emerge from the ground as a cluster of branches, however, the uncommon dan cong variety emerges as a single trunk that branches off higher up the stem.
Tea cultivation only began in Taiwan in the mid 19th century. Since then, many of the teas which are grown in Fujian province have also been grown in Taiwan. Since the 1970s the tea industry in Taiwan has grown at a rapid rate, in line with the rest of Taiwan’s economy. Due to high domestic demand and a strong tea culture, the majority of Taiwanese tea is bought and consumed by the Taiwanese.
As the weather in Taiwan is highly variable, quality of tea may differ from season to season. Although the island is not particularly large, it is geographically varied, with high, steep mountains rising quickly from low-lying coastal plains. The different weather patterns, temperatures, altitudes and soil ultimately result in differences in appearance, aroma and flavour of the tea grown in Taiwan. In some mountainous areas, teas have been cultivated at ever higher elevations to produce a unique sweet taste that fetches a premium price.
Dòng Dǐng (凍頂)
The name means Frozen Summit or Ice Peak. Dong Ding is a mountain in Nantou County, Central Taiwan. This is a tightly rolled tea with a light, distinctive fragrance.
Dong Fang Mei Ren (東方美人茶)
The name means Oriental (Eastern) Beauty. Also known as Bai Hao Oolong. This tea is tippy (the leaves frequently have white or golden tips), with natural fruity aromas, a bright red appearance and a sweet taste.
Grown in the Alishan area of Chiayi County, this tea has large rolled leaves that have a purple-green appearance when dry. It is grown at an elevation of 1000 to 1400 metres. There is only a short period during the growing season when the sun is strong, which results in a sweeter and less astringent brew. It produces a golden yellow tea which has a unique fruity aroma.
Grown in the north-central region of Taiwan this tea is very similar in appearance to Alishan teas but is often considered to be one of the best teas from Taiwan. It is grown at an elevation of above 1000 metres with Dayuling, Lishan, and Fusou being the best well know regions and teas of Lishan.
Also romanized as Baozhong, the lightest and most floral Oolong, with unrolled leaves of a light green to brown color. Originally grown in Fujian it is now widely cultivated and produced in Pinglin Township near Taipei, Taiwan.
High mountain tea (高山茶)
Oolong tea 乌龙茶（simplified Chinese: 乌龙; traditional Chinese: 烏龍; pinyin: wūlóng）是一种传统的中国茶（茶树）介于绿色和黑色的氧化。它的范围从10％至70％的氧化。中的典型的中餐馆的茶是最普遍的类型是。
武夷岩茶（武夷岩茶 Wǔyí yán chá）
大红袍在中国，一个珍贵的茶叶品种和四大名枞（四大名枞，literally: The Four Great Bushes）。在中国名茶排行榜,大红袍(和铁观音)是最著名的两个乌龙茶品种之一
在中国铁观音，这是从闽南安溪茶。安溪县（Chinese: 安溪县; Pinyin: Ānxī Xiàn; POJ: An-khoe）是在福建泉州地区的县级市。它位于毗邻，直接厦门北部。
安溪县是闻名的乌龙茶类产地，铁观音（铁观音, "Iron Boddhisatva of Mercy")。