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Oolong Tea(乌龙茶)

乌龙茶 林茶网 11年前 (2010-01-01) 12946次浏览 0个评论

Oolong Tea(乌龙茶)最著名的是福建的安溪(Anxi)鐵觀音(Tiě Guān Yīn or Ti Kuan Yin)和武夷山(WuYi Mountains)的武夷岩茶(Wǔyí cliff tea)和大红袍(Big Red Robe)
Oolong Tea(simplified Chinese: 乌龙茶; traditional Chinese: 烏龍茶; pinyin: wūlóng) is a traditional Chinese tea (Camellia sinensis) somewhere between green and black in oxidation. It ranges from 10% to 70% oxidation.[1] It is among the most popular types of teas served in typical Chinese restaurants.

In Chinese tea culture, semi-oxidised oolong teas are collectively grouped as qīngchá (Chinese: 清茶; literally "clear tea").[2] Oolong has a taste more akin to green tea than to black tea: it lacks the rosy, sweet aroma of black tea but it likewise does not have the stridently grassy vegetal notes that typify green tea. It is commonly brewed to be strong, with the bitterness leaving a sweet aftertaste. Several subvarieties of oolong, including those produced in the Wuyi Mountains of northern Fujian and in the central mountains of Taiwan, are among the most famous Chinese teas.

Oolong tea leaves are processed in two different ways. Some teas are rolled into long curly leaves, while some are pressed into a ball-like form similar to gunpowder tea.[1] The former method of processing is the older of the two.

The name oolong tea comes into the English language from the Chinese name (Chinese: 烏龍茶), which is pronounced as O·-liông tê in the Min Nan spoken variant. The Chinese name means "black dragon tea".

Possible origins

There are three widely accepted explanations on how the Chinese name came about. According to the "tribute tea" theory, oolong tea was a direct descendant of Dragon-Phoenix Tea Cake tribute tea. Oolong tea replaced it when loose tea came into fashion. Since it was dark, long and curly, it was called the Black Dragon tea.

According to the "Wuyi" theory, oolong tea first existed in Wuyi Mountain. This is evidenced by Qing dynasty poems such as Wuyi Tea Song (Wuyi Chage) and Tea Tale (Chashuo). It was said that oolong tea was named after the part of Wuyi mountain where it was originally produced.

According to the "Anxi" theory, oolong tea had its origin in the Anxi oolong tea plant. A man named Sulong, Wulong or Wuliang discovered it.

Another tale tells of a man named Wu Liang (later corrupted to Wu Long, or Oolong) who discovered oolong tea by accident when he was distracted by a deer after a hard day’s tea-picking, and by the time he remembered about the tea it had already started to oxidize.

Classification and grade

Tea connoisseurs classify the tea by its aroma (often floral or fruity), taste and aftertaste (often melony). Oolongs comes in either roasted (炭焙) or light (密香 or 清香). While most oolongs can be consumed immediately postproduction, like pu-erh tea, many oolong can benefit from long aging with regular light roasting with a low charcoal fire (烘培, pinyin:hōngpeì, literally: bake cultivation or 焙火, pinyin:peìhǔo, dry roasting by fire). Before roasting, Oolong tea leaves are rolled and bruised to break open cell walls and stimulate enzymatic activity. The process of roasting removes unwanted odours from the tea and reduces any sour or astringent tastes; in addition, the process is believed to make the oolong tea more gentle on the stomach.

Varieties of Oolong Tea
Wǔyí cliff tea (武夷岩茶 Wǔyí yán chá) from Fújiàn province
The most famous and expensive Oolong teas are made here but the production is still usually accredited as organic. A lot of Shuǐ Xiān is grown elsewhere in Fujian. Some of the better known cliff teas are:

Dà Hóng Páo (大红袍)
武夷山大红袍 dahongpao
Big Red Robe in Chinese, a highly prized tea and a Si Da Ming Cong (四大名樅, literally: The Four Great Bushes). This tea is also one of the two Oolongs that make it to the list of Chinese famous teas.
Shuǐ Jīn Guī (水金亀)
Golden Water Turtle in Chinese, a Si Da Ming Cong.
Tiě Luó Hàn (鉄羅漢)
Iron Arhat in Chinese, a Si Da Ming Cong tea
Bái Jī Guān (白鸡冠)
White Cockscomb in Chinese, a Si Da Ming Cong tea. A light tea with light, yellowish leaves.
Ròu Guì (肉桂)
Cinnamon in Chinese, a dark tea with a spicy aroma.
Shuǐ Xiān (水仙)
Water Sprite in Chinese, a very dark tea, often grown elsewhere

 Fújiàn province
Tiě Guān Yīn or Ti Kuan Yin (鐵觀音)
Iron Guanyin in Chinese, this is a tea from Anxi in South Fujian. Anxi County (Chinese: 安溪县; Pinyin: Ānxī Xiàn; POJ: An-khoe) is a county in the municipal region of Quanzhou, Fujian Province. It lies adjacent to and directly north of Xiamen.
Anxi is well-known for its sort of Oolong tea, Tieguanyin (铁观音, "Iron Boddhisatva of Mercy").
It is very famous, in fact a ‘Chinese famous tea’ and very popular.
Guangdong province
Dān Cōng (单丛) 
A family of stripe-style oolong teas from Guangdong Province. The doppelganger of teas, Dancong teas are noted for their ability to naturally imitate the flavors and fragrances of various flowers and fruits, such as orange blossom, orchid, grapefruit, almond, ginger flower, etc.
The name dan cong is often misinterpreted as meaning the tea is all picked from a single bush, grove, or clone. This is not correct. Dan cong is a botanical term that refers to the morphology of the tea plant. Most tea bushes emerge from the ground as a cluster of branches, however, the uncommon dan cong variety emerges as a single trunk that branches off higher up the stem.

Taiwan
Tea cultivation only began in Taiwan in the mid 19th century. Since then, many of the teas which are grown in Fujian province have also been grown in Taiwan.[4] Since the 1970s the tea industry in Taiwan has grown at a rapid rate, in line with the rest of Taiwan’s economy. Due to high domestic demand and a strong tea culture, the majority of Taiwanese tea is bought and consumed by the Taiwanese.

As the weather in Taiwan is highly variable, quality of tea may differ from season to season. Although the island is not particularly large, it is geographically varied, with high, steep mountains rising quickly from low-lying coastal plains. The different weather patterns, temperatures, altitudes and soil ultimately result in differences in appearance, aroma and flavour of the tea grown in Taiwan. In some mountainous areas, teas have been cultivated at ever higher elevations to produce a unique sweet taste that fetches a premium price.[4]

Dòng Dǐng (凍頂)
The name means Frozen Summit or Ice Peak. Dong Ding is a mountain in Nantou County, Central Taiwan. This is a tightly rolled tea with a light, distinctive fragrance.
Dong Fang Mei Ren (東方美人茶)
The name means Oriental (Eastern) Beauty. Also known as Bai Hao Oolong. This tea is tippy (the leaves frequently have white or golden tips), with natural fruity aromas, a bright red appearance and a sweet taste.
Alishan (阿里山茶)
Grown in the Alishan area of Chiayi County, this tea has large rolled leaves that have a purple-green appearance when dry. It is grown at an elevation of 1000 to 1400 metres. There is only a short period during the growing season when the sun is strong, which results in a sweeter and less astringent brew. It produces a golden yellow tea which has a unique fruity aroma.[7]
Lishan
Grown in the north-central region of Taiwan this tea is very similar in appearance to Alishan teas but is often considered to be one of the best teas from Taiwan. It is grown at an elevation of above 1000 metres with Dayuling, Lishan, and Fusou being the best well know regions and teas of Lishan.
Pouchong (包種茶)
Also romanized as Baozhong, the lightest and most floral Oolong[citation needed], with unrolled leaves of a light green to brown color. Originally grown in Fujian it is now widely cultivated and produced in Pinglin Township near Taipei, Taiwan.
High mountain tea (高山茶)

Oolong tea 乌龙茶(simplified Chinese: 乌龙; traditional Chinese: 烏龍; pinyin: wūlóng)是一种传统的中国茶(茶树)介于绿色和黑色的氧化。它的范围从10%至70%的氧化。[1]中的典型的中餐馆的茶是最普遍的类型是。

在中国茶文化,半发酵氧化乌龙茶统称归类为qīngchá(中文:青茶)。乌龙茶的味道接近绿茶与红茶之间:它不像浓郁甜香的红茶,但也没有刺耳的草地植物指出,是所谓绿茶。这是一般酿造是强劲的,与留下了甘甜的痛苦。几个子簇的乌龙茶,包括在福建南部的戴云山脉,北部的武夷山和在台湾的中央山脉,是最有名的中国茶叶种类

乌龙茶叶处理两种不同的方式。有些茶,长曲卷成叶,而另一些则压成球样形式类似珠茶。[1]的前处理方法是两老。

乌龙茶的名字从生效的中文名称(中文:乌龙茶),这是为O ·明显隆在闵嗯氨德发言变种英语。的中文名称是“青龙茶”。

可能起源

有三种被广泛接受的解释就如何中文名称的出现。根据“贡茶”的理论,乌龙茶是一个武夷山凤凰茶饼团茶的直系后裔,赞扬凤凰茶饼茶。乌龙茶取代它时,散茶成为时尚来。由于这是黑暗的,长曲,它被称为黑龙茶。

根据“武夷山”的理论,乌龙茶首先在武夷山存在。这一点体现在清代的武夷山茶歌和茶的故事唐诗。有人说,乌龙茶,是在武夷山它原来所在生产的部分命名。

据“安溪”的理论,乌龙茶有其在安溪乌龙茶植物的起源。命名乌龙,武隆或无量一名男子发现了它。

另一种传说,说(后损坏的吴隆,或乌龙茶)谁发现的,当时他被鹿分心忙碌一天后的茶叶事故采摘乌龙茶,到时他对茶记住名为吴哩盎是一种人造已开始氧化。

分类和等级

茶叶行家分类,其香味茶(通常花卉或水果),品味和回味(通常melony)。 Oolongs进来或者烤(炭焙)或轻(密香或清香)。尽管大多数oolongs可以立即消费后期制作,如普洱茶,许多乌龙茶可以受益于长期定期轻型低炭火(烘培,拼音:hōngpeì,从字面上:烘烤种植或焙火,拼音:peìhǔo焙烧老化,干以烧)。前烧,乌龙茶叶片轧制打破伤痕累累,开放,刺激细胞壁酶活性。这烧的茶除去不需要的气味,减少酸或涩的口味进程,此外,这一过程被认为是让更多的乌龙茶对胃温和。

乌龙茶品种
福建省武夷山(WuYi Mountains)
武夷岩茶(武夷岩茶 Wǔyí yán chá)
最有名的和昂贵的乌龙茶茶种,在这里,但生产仍然是通常的有机认证。水仙大量种植福建其他地方。较著名的武夷岩茶有:

大红袍(大红袍)
大红袍在中国,一个珍贵的茶叶品种和四大名枞(四大名枞,literally: The Four Great Bushes)。在中国名茶排行榜,大红袍(和铁观音)是最著名的两个乌龙茶品种之一
水金亀(水金亀)
黄金水龟在中国,四大名枞。
铁罗汉(鉄罗汉)
铁罗汉在中国,四大名枞茶
白继关(白鸡冠)
白鸡冠花以中文书写,四大名枞。阿轻,黄色光叶茶。
柔桂(肉桂)
肉桂在中国,一个辛辣香味的黑茶。
水仙(水仙)
水仙在中国,一个很著名黑茶,雪碧往往在其他地方生长

 福建省安溪县
铁观音或Ti观音(鐵觀音)
在中国铁观音,这是从闽南安溪茶。安溪县(Chinese: 安溪县; Pinyin: Ānxī Xiàn; POJ: An-khoe)是在福建泉州地区的县级市。它位于毗邻,直接厦门北部。
安溪县是闻名的乌龙茶类产地,铁观音(铁观音, "Iron Boddhisatva of Mercy")。
(乌龙茶)这是非常有名的,实际上是一个’中国名茶’,很受欢迎。
广东省
丛丹(单丛)
条纹一个家庭式由广东省乌龙茶。分身的茶,单枞茶是很著名的模仿自然的能力,如橙花,兰花,柚子,杏仁,姜花,等的滋味,各种花卉和水果,香水
丛丹的名字常常被误解为指所有的茶是从一个灌木丛,林,或克隆挑选。这是不正确的。丹公是一个植物学术语,是指在茶树形态。大多数茶树摆脱作为一个分支机构集群地,然而,各种罕见出现丛丹作为一个皮箱引起了较高的干树枝。

台湾乌龙茶
茶叶种植在台湾才开始在十九世纪中期。自那时以来,有哪些福建省茶叶种植也有不少在台湾成长。[4]自1970年代以来,台湾茶业的增长速度快速增长,在与台湾经济的其余部分一致。由于国内高需求和强大的茶文化,在台湾茶大部分是购买和台湾消费。

作为台湾的天气变化很大,茶的质量可能不同季节的季节。虽然岛屿不是特别大,这是地理上不同高,直线上升很快从低山区低洼的沿海平原。不同的气候类型,温度,海拔和土壤,最终在外观,香气和台湾出产的茶叶风味差异的结果。在一些山区,茶叶已培养了越来越高海拔产生的独特的甜味多方溢价[4]。

Dong Dǐng(冻顶乌龙茶)
这个名字意味着首脑会议或冷冻冰山顶。董提嗯是在南投县,台湾中部山区。这是一个轻,紧紧推出独特的香味茶。
董乏嗯美人(东方美人茶)
这个名字意味着东方(东方)美容。也称为柏号乌龙茶。这是毛尖茶(叶经常有白色或金色的提示),与天然水果香味,亮红色的外观和甜味。
阿里山(阿里山茶)
生长在嘉义县的阿里山地区,这茶有大,有紫色,绿色的外观干燥时卷叶。它是生长在一个1000年至1400年公尺。只有一在生长季节,阳光强烈,短期内的一个结果,少甜涩酿造。它产生一个金黄色的茶叶具有独特的果香。[7]
梨山
生长在东北,台湾中部地区这茶是在外观上非常相似,阿里山茶,但往往被认为是台湾最好的茶之一。它是一种生长在海拔高于1000 Dayuling,梨山米,其中最突出的Fusou所知地区和梨山茶。
包种茶(包种茶)
另外罗马的保中,最轻,最花乌龙茶[编辑],与浅绿色才展开叶片褐色。原本生长在福建,现在普遍种植和生产的坪林乡位于台北,台湾。
高山茶(高山茶)


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